AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

Sudanese Political Demystified: Exploring leadership, corruption and civil uprising in Sudan

Conflicts and corruption have been an integral part of African politics and human history for thousands of years. Although there have been significant struggles amongst individual and communities to uphold regional and international peace agreements, conflict and corruption still arise in parts of the African nations.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

I will share my views on the root causes of conflict and civil uprising in Sudan, from my own experience of living there.  I think, resources, corruption, tribalism and political influence are key themes of concern. Critically, I believe, there must be a focus on the misrepresentation of leadership in Sudan, the Transitional government and the warring parties.  Due to the ongoing situation, many of us were forced to leave Sudan and claim asylum in Europe due to these issues. Despite this, many of us sustain a committed interest in the country’s situation.  Conflict in Sudan has had a real impact on people’s lives (for example the death of the 16 years Sudanese boy  who was washed up on a French beach after drowning as he tried to reach the UK). I will take into consideration potential long-lasting solutions, like the peace agreement between the Transitional government and rebel armed groups in South Sudan, following the arrest of Al-Bashir (charged for genocide and war crime) by the Sudanese army.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Resources conflict

I observed first-hand that resources are unevenly distributed across the African continent and these inequalities are particularly prevalent in Sudan. For instance, segregation between people with/without access to profitable resources like oil and gold corresponds to long-term rifts along ethnic or linguistic lines. Such disputes are intensified over years of unresolved disagreements and tension.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

This has led to the separation of Sudanese people into groups, such as the nascent state of South Sudan. Both, North-South have been experiencing ethnic cleansing due to the inherent racism within the National Congress Party (NCP); and the rebel groups. This has resulted in extreme violence and genocide in Darfur. Sadly, access to resources continues to be a bone of contentious among the factions and fuels hostilities in Sudan and leads to ongoing turbulence. The decision to get the ICC involved has been welcomed by the majority of Sudanese people, who long for justice.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Political influence and corruption

To put the genesis of Sudan’s problems into context, we must consider actions by power-seeking politicians which have resulted in chaos. The political power struggle, between Al-Bashir and the rebels continue to play a prevalent role in the unrest in Sudan. Their actions had a direct impact on our lives. Al-Bashir’s coup d’etat took place when he was head of military and resulted in informal leadership being won by the NCP in 1989. It is now recognised that he could face the death penalty after the mass grave linked to it was found.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

After an internal party dispute within the NCP followed a deadly civil war and ongoing genocide in Darfur. Recent peaceful protests were aimed at establishing democratic rule with honourable elections, freedoms and good governance.  Protesters were successful in overthrowing the internationally recognised autocratic NCP in April 2019. Bashir was removed from power and Sudanese protesters reject army takeover after the removal of president. The Sudanese protests were led primarily by women who were against the army’s decision to replace Al-Bashir with a military-led Transitional council. Having women in leadership roles has only been possible since the fall of Al-Bashir, and this should be regarded as a success. Promoted by the protests, the Head of Sudan’s military council stepped down just one day after Bashir toppled.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Unfixed damaging

I think, nothing has changed for the better in Sudan over the years, and many things are worse than ever. The whole country is now suffering from rising inflation rate leading to a deep economic recession and hunger. The country is also suffering  from the consequences of climate change including the damage caused by flooding.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Amidst all of this, Sudan has paid the value of  $335 million to American victims of the1998 terror attack on two US embassies by al-Qaida in order to be removed from a list of states that patronage terrorism.  However, having been forced to illegally trade natural resources to one of the wealthiest countries in order to make the payment, and repeatedly failing to improve living conditions for the people of Sudan, has caused outrage in the heart-stricken east African country.  Also pressed to improve ties between Sudan and Israel, discussions have taken place to lift sanctions with the Transitional government who have worked hard to put Sudan into international arenas and form a normalisation with Israel. This has also removed Sudan from a blacklist which could contribute to sustainable development and a more prosperous future for the country. However, considering Israel’s history of failure to negotiate peace with Palestine, and the ongoing political corruption within Israel and the USA – one cannot trust the sincerity of the motivations behind this agreement. It seems this is yet another opportunity for these wealthy superpowers to exploit a poor country, and the Sudanese Transitional government is supporting it.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Historical peace agreement

Despite promises of an agreement between the Transitional government and rebel groups , and efforts to prevent further difficulties such as settlements to bring the warring parties together in South Sudan– progress remains slow. As the Prime Minister Hamdok said:(this is Sudanese peace, made with our own hands and by our own efforts, this is not a paper agreement, but is a living organism that needs care, attention and political will from all of us.  It is a long road ahead and formidable challenges remain. However there remains hope that Sudan can turn the page on decades of war which has left hundreds of thousands dead and millions displaced).

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

In conclusion, I fear that addressing the overarching systemic themes of concern will take many years due to the lack of institutionalization of democracy, accountability and freedoms. I suggest the enlightenment of peace, equality, and the rule of law and democracy as a starting point for finding any long-lasting solution. Human rights and equality are required before any society can be called “democratic”. Sudan’s revolutionaries pin hopes on a new PM. This is the chance to recognise the time-tested backbones of a representative government. For now, there are ongoing talks and an increased opposition by the majority of people from warring parties. I believe, sustainable solutions, like peace agreement between the Transitional government and warring parties in South Sudan- has potential to start the process of ending conflict. However, it is necessary for the (TG) to make complete peace agreements with all the rebel groups (e.g. SLM and SPLM-N), rather than repeating the notions of NCP and making agreements with only a couple of warring parties (i.e. SLM and JEM). I believe a very significant role is played by the Transitional Government, particularly when negotiating with territorial organisations such as the African Union and East African states. Without any linear interest in Sudan’s resources, their views cannot be ignored. Such territories within the region can clearly have an unbiased way of reconciliation and are likely to obtain the trust from the warring parties. Although there is no single solution to these issues in Sudan, I hope that an aggregate of sound decision-making with the primary aim of democratic rule, could pave the way for governance in Sudan which will have a positive impact on the lives of its people.

Feeling Intense Or Passionate Dislike…!!

If we ain’t breathe…!!

Detest the life full of disaster,
Hope not to be in the street full of mud like butter,
Dislike the war in peaceful world,
Despise my beings to recall the tragedy and massacres of our life,
Have an aversion to be in life full of bloodshed and fight,
Loathe those who hide and creep up like insects in the darkest deepest night,
Abhor the people with double face,
We hate the race, we hate the loneliness,
We recoil from the homesick life like trees without leaves,
We feel venomous for the useless life, the hollow valley, plagued by evil rumours,
We are sick of the zigzag way, we are sick with the pendulum life,
We cannot breathe from the storm or the fire that burns our homes, pain for the person who wanders alone with only one shoe,
Shrink away from the hunger that causes death,
Even if we ain’t breathe, we ain’t fight with the same hate,
Detest, despise, and dislike, this hate, this hate..!!

M.Omar A.K.A Dream

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

Politics Demystified: Understanding the root causes of the divisions in Sudan

Wars have been part of human history for thousands of years. In as much as there have been significant efforts among nations to foster global peace, the war still rears its ugly head in international relations. This blog will explore the causes of war within states with particular focus on Africa. It will take into consideration relations such as the one between Sudan and South Sudan. There are several causes of wars, but this blog will suggest that resources, tribalism and political influence are some of the key areas of concern especially in the case of Sudan and South Sudan. Areas of possible long-lasting solutions will also be considered.

The necessities of life are unevenly distributed across the world and Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. In Africa, very often the divide between those with access to natural resources and those lacking them corresponds with long-term rifts along ethnic or linguistic lines. These disputes can often get intensified: after years of latent disagreements and tensions that were never fully resolved. The rift between Sudan and South Sudan, for example, shows how deep-seated ethnic and religious hostilities can lead to the separation of countries. Add the uneven distribution of wealth from the lucrative natural resource, oil, to such situations and you can naturally expect passions to stem out of control. And it did lead to the separation of South Sudan from Sudan. One would have thought this would have ended any hostilities but not long after, South Sudan was thrown into turmoil. Interestingly the country’s natural resource has become the bone of contention among the factions fuelling the war in South Sudan.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

To put the genesis of South Sudan’s problems into context, actions by power-seeking politicians resulted in throwing the country into its current chaos led by Mr Reak Machar who was the Vice president of the newly independent country South Sudan. Due to the power struggle with the president (Mr Salva Kiir) at the time (2013), the conflict escalated in the region. Mr Reak Machar, the former vice president, after an internal party dispute with the president, went to fight with the motive to overthrow the internationally recognised government of South Sudan, the nascent state.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

Mr Reak Machar

 

Even though several attempts have been made in order to stop the fighting including arrangements made for peace talks to bring the warring parties together in Ethiopia, yet progress remains sluggish. ‘There has been an interest to maintain the balance of power in the region’ (Best. S, 2002, p.211).

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

Furthermore, the war in Sudan was one of the most significant events of the 1980s in East Africa. The causes of this conflict seem to include aggression, natural resources, revenge, retribution, retaliation, and tribalism.

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics DemystifiedAKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

In continuation, the point is also made that the war was caused by the interest in South Sudan’s natural resources. According to Morgan (2018), South Sudan bears the third-largest oil reserves in Sub-Sahara Africa. As such, we continue to see the president of Sudan Omar al-Bashir as a dominant figure in this war. Also, his political skills have been underestimated. Sudan continues to muddy the waters by instigating South Sudanese on tribal lines particularly the Dinka versus the Nuers to create instability. Historically, the tribal divisions in Sudan escalated the war, for example, the war in Darfur. Hence, atrocities were committed on ethnic lines in South Sudan where the Dinka tribe are largely supporting the current president of South Sudan Mr Salva Kiiri forming the majority in their army. While Mr Machar is supported by the Nuer tribe which has the largest population in South Sudan. However, the conflict continues to prang the region into ethnic tensions, sending refugees to neighbouring countries like Uganda, Kenya, Egypt, and Ethiopia without appropriate measures.

In conclusion, what lessons have been learnt and are there a way forward? In brief, it has been realised that there is an absolute lack of democracy and the institutionalization of freedom (Baylis et al, 2011). The introduction of democracy is the starting point for any meaningful solution to be lasting. There is a great ‘chance to identify the time-tested fundamentals of constitutional government, human rights, and equality before the law that any society must possess to be properly called democratic’ (Baylis et al, 2011).

 

AKA The Dream Sudanese Politics Demystified

 

But in the meantime, continued dialogue and the realization that war is not a good option favoured by the bulk of the people by the warring parties can go a long way in starting the process of ending this war. The role of regional organisations cannot be ignored particularly the African Union and East African states without any direct interest in South Sudan’s resources. Such countries within the region can have an objective way of mediating and likely to gain trust from the warring parties. There is no one right solutions or approach to the Sudan issue and perhaps a combination of different options with the objective of democratic rule at its front can pave the way of inclusivity in the governance of South Sudan.

 

References list

Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. (2011). The globalization of world politics. 5th Ed. New York: Oxford University.

Best, S. (2002). Introduction to politics and society.1st. Sage Publications.p211.

Morgan, H. (2018). South Sudan seeks to revive oil production. [Online] Aljazeera.com. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/11/south-sudan-holds-oil-conference-boost-industry-181121162656481.html [Accessed 16 Mar. 2019].

 

Call Me Dream This Is My Name

Black
Moonlight in the dark night
Fabulous
I cannot see the way
For moon rays reflecting
Of myriads of stars
In this I feel the colour
Purple
As rich as vineyards
With the flavours of rose
That sweeps around my face
In a corridor of green grapes and seashells
So sad and melancholy
Full of lilting and deluding
Everything is satin
Yellow
Mirrored in my life’s memory
Circles of joyous and carnivals
Interrupted by friends left behind
Forever playing with the dolphins
Among the tempestuous seas
My sights are to return
To my heart made of ochre
Straw wood and clay
I see my lifetime’s spirals
That appear as a night’s dream
In midsummer, I awake
To find the veil of cloudy morns
Full of dew soaked serrated green

M.Omar A.K.A Dream

Refugees In The Jungle Passionate In The Sea

Blue,
Like the cloudless sky
On a sun filled day!

Soft,
Like the sleeping child
In a rocking cradle,

Voice,
Like the sounds of grief
Through her gritted teeth!

Coffin,
Like the skeleton carried
In my darkest deepest sleep!

Dream,

Like the birth of my child
With a new mother tongue!

Fear,
Like carrying a heaviness
Over endless trails of fatigue!

Hope,
Like arriving in my home
Where my tears are my own.

M.Omar A.K.A Dream

My Pelican

He flies over sensitively
Circle moving in the space,
To send the message of peace,
Love and forgiveness
Let him rest in peace until
The day of judgement
Life long
Life meaningless as the colour blue
Allow him to live his greatest life in his kingdom
Liberate him in life after death
Liberate him
Glorify him as he flies on a puristic blue sky
He is divine as a being in grief without light
Controls his feelings to make a peaceful life
Love not war
Your kindness
Your forgiveness
Glorified his existence
Your tolerance makes a life full of rejoicing
As the colour purple.

M.Omar A.K.A Dream